Nov 11, Xander rated it liked it Eleven Theses on Feuerbach is the abstract summary of Marx's critique of political economy and his programme for a new, juster society. Before Marx, there were roughly two philosophical views on reality. Either reality is passively perceived by the subject, or the subject is perceiving reality through thinking it up. Locke's empiricism versus Berkeley's idealism.
The most widely known version of the "Theses" is that based on Engels' edited version, published as an appendix to his Ludwig Feuerbach inwhere he gave it the title Theses on Feuerbach; Translated: Hence it happened that the active side, in opposition to materialism, was developed by idealism — but only abstractly, since, of course, idealism does not know real, sensuous activity as such.
In The Essence of Christianity [Das Wesen des Christenthums], he therefore regards the theoretical attitude as the only genuinely human attitude, while practice is conceived and defined only in its dirty-Jewish form of appearance [Erscheinungsform].
Man must prove the truth, i. The dispute over the reality or non-reality of thinking which is isolated from practice is a purely scholastic question. Hence this doctrine is bound to divide society into two parts, one of which is superior to society.
His work consists in resolving the religious world into its secular basis. He overlooks the fact that after completing this work, the chief thing still remains to be done. For the fact that the secular basis lifts off from itself and establishes itself in the clouds as an independent realm can only be explained by the inner strife and intrinsic contradictoriness of this secular basis.
The latter must itself be understood in its contradiction and then, by the removal of the contradiction, revolutionised. Thus, for instance, once the earthly family is discovered to be the secret of the holy family, the former must itself be annihilated [vernichtet] theoretically and practically.
But the essence of man is no abstraction inherent in each single individual. In reality, it is the ensemble of the social relations. Feuerbach, who does not enter upon a criticism of this real essence is hence obliged: To abstract from the historical process and to define the religious sentiment regarded by itself, and to presuppose an abstract — isolated - human individual.
All mysteries which lead theory to mysticism find their rational solution in human practice and in the comprehension of this practice.
Theses On Feuerbach I The chief defect of all hitherto existing materialism — that of Feuerbach included — is that the thing, reality, sensuousness, is conceived only in the form of the object or of contemplation, but not as sensuous human activity, practice, not subjectively.
Hence, in contradistinction to materialism, the active side was developed abstractly by idealism — which, of course, does not know real, sensuous activity as such. Feuerbach wants sensuous objects, really distinct from the thought objects, but he does not conceive human activity itself as objective activity.
Hence, in The Essence of Christianity, he regards the theoretical attitude as the only genuinely human attitude, while practice is conceived and fixed only in its dirty-judaical manifestation. Hence he does not grasp the significance of "revolutionary", of "practical-critical", activity.
II The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question. Man must prove the truth — i. The dispute over the reality or non-reality of thinking that is isolated from practice is a purely scholastic question.
III The materialist doctrine concerning the changing of circumstances and upbringing forgets that circumstances are changed by men and that it is essential to educate the educator himself.
This doctrine must, therefore, divide society into two parts, one of which is superior to society. The coincidence of the changing of circumstances and of human activity or self-changing can be conceived and rationally understood only as revolutionary practice.
IV Feuerbach starts out from the fact of religious self-alienation, of the duplication of the world into a religious world and a secular one. But that the secular basis detaches itself from itself and establishes itself as an independent realm in the clouds can only be explained by the cleavages and self-contradictions within this secular basis.
The latter must, therefore, in itself be both understood in its contradiction and revolutionized in practice. Thus, for instance, after the earthly family is discovered to be the secret of the holy family, the former must then itself be destroyed in theory and in practice.
V Feuerbach, not satisfied with abstract thinking, wants contemplation; but he does not conceive sensuousness as practical, human-sensuous activity. VI Feuerbach resolves the religious essence into the human essence. But the human essence is no abstraction inherent in each single individual.
In its reality it is the ensemble of the social relations. Feuerbach, who does not enter upon a criticism of this real essence, is consequently compelled: To abstract from the historical process and to fix the religious sentiment as something by itself and to presuppose an abstract — isolated — human individual.Thesis Eleven is the most famous of Karl Marx’s Theses on Feuerbach, and goes like this: The philosophers have only interpreted the world in .
The "Theses on Feuerbach" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book The German Ideology in Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich .
Feuerbach resolves the religious essence into the human essence. But the human essence is no abstraction inherent in each single individual. In its reality it is the ensemble of the social relations.
Marx, Theses on Feuerbach (), p.2 of 3 2 II The question whether objective [ gegenständliche ] truth can be attained by human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question. Karl Marx Theses On Feuerbach Thesis Theses On Feuerbach by Karl Marx – Marxists Internet Archive the Theses is that based on Engels 39; edited version, to his Ludwig Feuerbach in , where he gave it the title Theses on Feuerbach; LibriVox recording of "Eleven Theses on Feuerbach, by Karl Marx.
Translated and read by Carl Manchester. The "Theses on Feuerbach" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx in They outline a critique of the ideas of Marx's fellow Young Hegelian philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach.