Unable to do justice to the rich diversity of Buddhisms which have evolved through the influence of the various host cultures, they focus upon a few of the simple ideas to which Buddhists of all denominations are supposed to adhere. The Buddhist doctrine first developed in northern India towards the fifth century BCE and gradually spread its way across the rest of the subcontinent during the third century BCE following the conversion of King Ashoka, founder of the first Indian empire. Without King Ashoka, Buddhism may well have remained a minority religion rather like Jainism, with which it shares certain common features. Whatever the case, this model of the Buddhist sovereign embodied by Ashoka had a lasting influence upon the relationship between Buddhism and the state in all Asian cultures.
In general, Latin Americans experience significantly less stress — and also smile more — on a daily basis than Americans. The gaps between the poor and rich in the US were significantly wider by 1. The gaps between the expectations and sentiments of rich and poor in the US are also greater than in many other countries in east Asia and Europe the other regions studied.
It seems that being poor in a very wealthy and unequal country — which prides itself on being a meritocracy, and eschews social support for those who fall behind — results in especially high levels of stress and desperation.
But my research also yielded some surprises. With the low levels of belief in the value of hard work and high levels of stress among poor respondents in the US as a starting point, I compared optimism about the future across poor respondents of different races.
This was based on a question in the US Gallup daily poll that asks respondents where they think they will be five years from now on a step life satisfaction ladder. Read more I found that poor minorities — and particularly black people — were much more optimistic about the future than poor white people.
Indeed, poor black respondents were three times as likely to be a point higher up on the optimism ladder than were poor whites, while poor Hispanic people were one and a half times more optimistic than whites. Poor black people were also half as likely as poor whites to experience stress the previous day, while poor Hispanics were only two-thirds as likely as poor whites.
What explains the higher levels of optimism among minorities, who have traditionally faced discrimination and associated challenges?
There is no simple answer. One factor is that poor minorities have stronger informal safety nets and social support, such as families and churches, than do their white counterparts. Psychologists also find that minorities are more resilient and much less likely to report depression or commit suicide than are whites in the face of negative shocks, perhaps due to a longer trajectory of dealing with negative shocks and challenges.
Another critical issue is the threat and reality of downward mobility for blue-collar whites, particularly in the heartland of the country where manufacturing, mining, and other jobs have hollowed out.
Andrew Cherlin of Johns Hopkins University finds that poor black and Hispanic people are much more likely than poor white people to report that they live better than their parents did.
Poor whites are more likely to say they live worse than their parents did; they, in particular, seem to be living the erosion of the American dream. The American problem Why does this matter?
My research from a decade ago — since confirmed by other studies — found that individuals who were optimistic about their futures tended to have better health and employment outcomes. Those who believe in their futures tend to invest in those futures, while those who are consumed with stress, daily struggles and a lack of hope, not only have less means to make such investments, but also have much less confidence that they will pay off.
Desperate people are more likely to die prematurely, but living with a lot of premature death can also erode hope The starkest marker of lack of hope in the US is a significant increase in premature mortality in the past decade — driven by an increase in suicides and drug and alcohol poisoning and a stalling of progress against heart disease and lung cancer — primarily but not only among middle-aged uneducated white people.
Mortality rates for black and Hispanic people, while higher on average than those for whites, continued to fall during the same time period. The reasons for this trend are multi-faceted. One is the coincidence of an all-too-readily-available supply of drugs such as opioids, heroin and fentanyl, with the shrinking of blue-collar jobs — and identities - primarily due to technological change.
The identity of the blue-collar worker seems to be stronger for white people than for minorities, meanwhile. While there are now increased employment opportunities in services such as health, white males are far less likely to take them up than are their minority counterparts.
Lack of hope also contributes to rising mortality rates, as evidenced in my latest research with Sergio Pinto. On average, individuals with lower optimism for the future are more likely to live in metropolitan statistical areas MSAs with higher mortality rates for to year-olds.
Desperate people are more likely to die prematurely, but living with a lot of premature death can also erode hope. Higher average levels of optimism in metropolitan areas are also associated with lower premature mortality rates.
These same places tend to be more racially diverse, healthier as gauged by fewer respondents who smoke and more who exerciseand more likely to be urban and economically vibrant.
Yet by contrast, away from the US, they have not had a similar increase in premature mortality. One reason may be stronger social welfare systems — and stronger norms of collective social responsibility for those who fall behind — in Europe.
Blue-collar white people — whose parents lived the American dream and who expected their children to do so as well — are the ones who seem most devastated by its erosion and yet, on average, tend to vote against government programmes. In contrast, minorities, who have been struggling for years and have more experience multi-tasking on the employment front and relying on family and community support when needed — are more resilient and hopeful, precisely because they still see a chance for moving up the ladder.
There are high costs to being poor in America, where winners win big but losers fall hard. Indeed, the dream, with its focus on individual initiative in a meritocracy, has resulted in far less public support than there is in other countries for safety nets, vocational training, and community support for those with disadvantage or bad luck.timberdesignmag.com is a platform for academics to share research papers.
Despite the fact that a more mundane and military reality has infiltrated the Tibetan dream, the travel tales of explorer Alexandra David-Néel as well as publications by the alleged lama Lobsang Rampa – who is now known to have been a British charlatan – have continued to add credibility to the idea of a .
The forces that lead them to militancy, he said, include experiences of injustice, discrimination, marginalization, corruption, or physical violence, such as being beaten by police or security. Making the American Dream a Reality: From I Have A Dream to I Have a Job Having a decent job is an essential part of achieving the American Dream, and the dream of racial justice described by.
Is the American dream really dead? Another critical issue is the threat and reality of downward mobility for blue-collar whites, particularly in the heartland of the country where.
American Dream: Reality or Fool’s Quest? ation declining by forces beyond their control,” said Timothy Smeeding, a University of Wisconsin-Madison eco-nomics professor. “The climb back up for the middle class and the recovery will be slow and often painful.”.
|Unmasking Buddhism | Bernard Faure - timberdesignmag.com||By this they usually mean a good education that leads to a job with upward mobility, which includes salary raises and promotions, retirement accounts, and of course home ownership. The American Dream is well known around the world.|
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|The Great God Brown||Excellent point and one that everyone should expand on. I knew certain people would seize on this.|
|I hear your point.|
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