Whites insisted that blacks did not want to vote, but this was not true. Many blacks wanted to vote, but they worried, and rightfully so, that they might lose their job.
View all Overview By the s, African Americans began to mobilize in earnest against discrimination. As the photograph makes clear, even baseball legend Willie Mays was touched by housing discrimination.
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They lived in the same culture as white Americans — as illustrated by the photographs of Oakland's McClymonds High School marching band and the group of young woman at an NAACP-sponsored social event — and they wanted to enjoy equal rights.
The Struggle for Civil Rights ss Civil rights groups demanded an end to segregation. They fought for equality in education, housing, and employment opportunities, and they made some headway.
White-collar and professional sector jobs began to open up for African Americans, as shown by the photograph of commercial artist Berry Weeks working at his draft board in But not all white Americans welcomed change.
From the s through the s, movements for civil and social rights, equality, and justice swept the United States. As the movement gained ground, however, it created a backlash of racism in many parts of the country, including California.
The photograph documenting a cross burning on the lawn of a black family in San Francisco's Ingleside district in shows clearly that this backlash was not limited to the Deep South.
Most civil rights protests of this time were peaceful, as illustrated by two photographs taken in San Francisco in Civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. But others, such as Black Muslim leader Malcolm X, were less patient with the process, foreshadowing the harder-edged protests to come.
InPresident John F. By FebruaryMalcolm X had also been killed. Later that year, anger and desperation fueled by years of discriminatory practices and police brutality exploded into violence in the Los Angeles African American neighborhood of Watts.
The violence — triggered by the arrest of a black motorcyclist by white police — was the most destructive urban uprising in US history at that time.
The woman shown standing outside her apartment was just one of many people affected. The riots lasted a week, involved more than 10, people, and left at least 34 dead. The violence shocked the nation and left the community in disarray. But over the next few years the citizens of Watts pulled together to rebuild their neighborhood.
Parades demonstrated their newfound civic pride. One photograph shows former heavyweight boxing champion Muhammad Ali newspapers still called him Cassius Clay riding in a convertible as Grand Marshall of the Watts Summer Festival in ; another shows the Queen of the Watts Christmas Parade in The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long movement with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already enjoyed.
During his presidency, Johnson sent three landmark civil rights bills to Congress: the Civil Rights Act of , the Voting Rights Act of , and the Fair Housing Act of Enlarge Thomas J.
O’Halloran. The strategies of the s movement were litigation, organization, mobilization and civil disobedience, aimed at creating a national political constituency for civil rights advances.
In the s, electoral strategies began to dominate, engendered by the Voting Rights Act.
The American civil rights movement in the s and ’60s awakened the country’s conscience to the plight of African Americans, who had long been denied first-class citizenship. The movement used nonviolence and passive resistance to change discriminatory laws and practices, primarily in the South.
They lived in the same culture as white Americans — as illustrated by the photographs of Oakland's McClymonds High School marching band and the group of young woman at an NAACP-sponsored social event — and they wanted to enjoy equal rights. The Struggle for Civil Rights (ss) Civil rights groups demanded an end to segregation.
There is no denying the effect that Freedom Summer had on Mississippi's blacks. In , % of Mississippi's voting-age blacks were registered to vote, % below the national average. By , that number had leaped to %, % above the national average.