Robert Harris Version Date: April 27, This article provides guidelines for creating APA-style in-text citations for your paper. The examples here are based on the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
By Michael Nielsen One day in the mids, a Moscow newspaper reporter named Solomon Shereshevsky entered the laboratory of the psychologist Alexander Luria. He began with simple tests, short strings of words and of numbers. Shereshevsky remembered these with ease, and so Luria gradually increased the length of the strings.
But no matter how long they got, Shereshevsky could recite them back. Experiments indicated that he had no difficulty reproducing any lengthy series of words whatever, even though these had originally been presented to him a week, a month, a year, or even many years earlier.
In fact, some of these experiments designed to test his retention were performed without his being given any warning fifteen or sixteen years after the session in which he had originally recalled the words.
Yet invariably they were successful. Such stories are fascinating. Memory is fundamental to our thinking, and the notion of having a perfect memory is seductive.
At the same time, many people feel ambivalent about their own memory. This question turns out to be highly generative of good ideas, and pursuing it has led to many of the most important vision documents in the history of computing.
A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory. In his proposal for the web, Berners-Lee describes the need for his employer the particle physics organization CERN to develop a collective institutional memory, a pool of information to develop which could grow and evolve with the organization and the projects it describes.
These are just a few of the many attempts to use computers to augment human memory. From the memex to the web to wikis to org-mode to Project Xanadu to attempts to make a map of every thought a person thinks: In this essay we investigate personal memory systems, that is, systems designed to improve the long-term memory of a single person.
In the first part of the essay I describe my personal experience using such a system, named Anki. That is, Anki makes memory a choice, rather than a haphazard event, to be left to chance. The second part of the essay discusses personal memory systems in general. Many people treat memory ambivalently or even disparagingly as a cognitive skill: The essay is unusual in style.Note: the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, websites whose titles are the same name as their publisher, websites that make works available but do not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, or JSTOR)..
Publication date. The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an. When quoting fewer than forty words (or fewer than four lines) from a source, enclose the quotation in quotation marks and include When quoting more than forty words (or more than four lines) from a source, create a block quotation that Guideline 5: Three or More Authors.
When a source has three, four, or five authors, include all last. By Michael Nielsen. One day in the mids, a Moscow newspaper reporter named Solomon Shereshevsky entered the laboratory of the psychologist Alexander Luria.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. I agree. That’s why I personally lean to believe business/technological activity is often (but not always) more effective than trying to go into politics when you want to solve real problems.
When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.) For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples: When citing long sections (more than three lines) of poetry, keep formatting as close to the original as possible.