Words of Lemuel After this, we would then want to consider how the passage fits into the book of Proverbs as a whole.
Other opponents of the simple picture maintained that pleasure requires a much larger cognitive context than, on the simple picture, it does. Coan and AllenRachels That pleasure includes these has been prominently noted e.
Duncker,; Alston,; Gosling,ff. Exclusive focus on salient episodes with acute onset caused by typically pleasant stimulation, as from sweets and caresses, may mislead one to think such episodes or sensations are the main topic of hedonic discussion or to misread others as making this mistake.
Pleasure neither easily fits, nor has been widely thought by theorists to fit, the standard paradigms of sensation, whether of qualities of outward things or of those of either localized or diffuse bodily sensation, since it seems any typically pleasant sensory state or quality may be enjoyed less or even not at all on occasions, while its sensory quality and intensity remain much the same Rylep.
The pleasantness of tastes is modulated by nutritional state and experience YoungCabanacBolles And differences in mood, temperament, personal history, and how one feels toward a particular person in a specific social context may make Literature gives pleasure and knowledge the difference between feeling great pleasure or great distress from what seems the same sensation of touch cf.
Both science and reflection on everyday experience thus distinguish mere sensation proper from hedonic reaction cf. Their view that pleasure is an at least cognitively isolable conscious event or feature has counterparts among those ancient hedonist materialist philosophers who thought of pleasure as some smooth or gentle stimulation, motion, or physiological change see Gosling and Taylorpp.
Hedonist views that explain human value, motivation, and concepts of good and evil in terms of such supposedly simple affective feelings of pleasure and pain e. Pleasure was widely taken for granted as foundational in this way by the nascent behavioral and social sciences, until more demanding standards, first for stricter introspection and later for more objective in this use: He thus took the concept of pleasure to be irreducibly evaluative and normative, but still to apply to experience; experience is pleasant to the extent it wholly grounds reasons to desire, seek, or actualize it merely in how it feels.
Mid-twentieth-century British and American philosophers departed still farther from the simple picture and associated empiricist traditions, influenced in part by behaviorism in psychology. Justin Gosling, insightfully appraising the Ryle-inspired literature toward the end of its run, argued that it had largely missed the ethical and psychological importance of pleasure by neglecting the conceptually central cases of positive emotion and mood.
For a forthright denial of pleasant occurrent mood, see Taylor He concluded that our being pleased in these ways shows pleasure to be, in a relaxed way of speaking, a feeling, after all, and that the concept is extended from these cases to include enjoyments that may please one at the time or else cause or dispose one to be pleased later.
Wanting things for their own sake, which hedonists often seek to explain in terms of their being pleasant, is actually connected to the central cases through its often being caused by being pleased at some prospect.
While Gosling used such distinctions to block some arguments for hedonist theses, he also defended the importance of pleasure in both moral psychology and ethicschapters 9 and She influentially judged the concept so obscure and problematic that theories placing weight upon it, such as hedonistic utilitarianism, should be rejected out of hand.
John Rawls, quoting her even more influentially, did just that, abandoning utilitarianism for a more constructivist and less realist approach to ethics. Attributing pleasure to a subject, rather, involves understanding what it is for a subject to regard and behave toward something as good however nonconceptually represented and this in turn involves background knowledge of the ways something may intelligibly be considered good and an object of voluntary pursuit.
Thus the possession of the concept of pleasure presupposes the presence of a rich and contextually embedded concept of the good that no mere momentary qualitative experience could supply. Therefore no such experience could serve as the origin of our concept of pleasure or of our concept of good, as empiricists aiming to account for these concepts as acquired from a feeling of pleasure had supposed.
Our feeling pleasure or pain is just our having our attention and motivation directed in this waya, b, To the extent that someone has predominantly such a pattern of desire and emotion, it would seem, on this view, that sensory pain or, as Helm has it, the stimulation that would otherwise have been painful must, as signaling the approach of the desired end, be if not purely then at least on balance pleasant.
And in the unconflicted limiting case, we need not offer palliative analgesia for relief of pain, since experiencing pain is supposedly unintelligible lacking an appropriate larger pattern of desires and emotions.
No need for morphine to palliate any such seeming pain of our patient, it seems. Such views may have testable consequences.
They may predict that broad attitude changes accompany effective antidepresssant therapy and, less plausibly, all transient enjoyments and lightening of mood. But as Helm perhaps halfway acknowledges by deferring in passing to biological constraints, we may not be as unitary and governed by a coherent pattern of feelings, desires, and evaluative judgments as he seems officially to propose.
In such cases, at least, it seems plausible that our relevant concerns and practical reasons are small and local, centered on the pleasure and perhaps a perception Sidgwick, ; Goldstein, or appearance Plato and Aristotle, according to Jessica Moss of its goodness, rather than necessarily embedded in a much larger package deal.
Even if pleasure is or involves a functional role of some kind, this may be a relatively small and local one of a kind shared with simpler animals, constituted by intrinsic functions of brain and mind. Opponents who privilege a holistic model of evaluation and deliberation may demand, instead, that all feeling be made intelligible in its terms.
We should be equally skeptical of both demands and also of the claims for special and exclusive intelligibility on which they trade.
It appears that affective experience is present in infants who have as yet no large pattern of desires and concerns and also in dying people who have lost any relevant ones or even the capacity for them.
We thus have some reason to return to something closer to the simple picture that retains its momentary experiential core. While a mature conception will distinguish behavioral expression from its inward cause as Walther does, in lines 28—29, quoted in note 8the very young child may possess a less differentiated conception in which the salient contrasts between smiling or laughing and crying Walther, line 29and generally between the external expressions of the positive and negative affects, are prominent.Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within timberdesignmag.com may also refer to literature written by Italians or in Italy in other languages spoken in Italy, often languages that are closely related to modern Italian.
An early example of Italian literature is the tradition of vernacular lyric poetry performed in Occitan, which reached Italy by the end of the 12th century. Literature: Bringing Pleasure And Value to Young Readers. Literature is sometimes perceived as a course of study taken in high school or college that allows older students to encounter the ideas and experiences of people throughout history.
Spalding and Hare say stories give pleasure.
Literature does give pleasure and knowledge to people who like toread. To people who does not like to read it might only giveknowledge.
These are some of the many databases available to you as a member of Middletown Thrall Library: Artemis (now Gale Literary Sources) Searches the following databases (described below): Literature Criticism Online, Literature for Students, Literature Resource Center, and Something about the Author.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE – THE GOOD BOOKS [This Preface and the following Introduction will be part of a book of the same or similar title, including Study Guides for each of the Good Books included on our list.]. The Lie of Imperialism Exposed in Literature - If postcolonial literature is the “process of dialogue and necessary correction,” of misconceptions concerning colonialism, then a comparative study of colonial and postcolonial works is essential for attaining a full understanding of the far-reaching effects of European imperialism (Groden and Kreiswirth ).