Development of scince and technology in

Naik, member-secretary of the Indian Education Commission, commented on the educational policies of the time: Radio broadcasting was initiated in but became state responsibility only in The policy statement was presented to the Parliament on December 2, On this basis the concept of creating a holding company to manage inputs and outputs under one umbrella was mooted.

Development of scince and technology in

Page 16 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era.

The National Academies Press. Wind, water, and animal power, with their limitations of place and capacity, were supplemented and then replaced by the steam engine, which went on to power the factories of the industrial revolution. The railroad made it possible to move things and people quickly over great distances.

The telegraph and, later, the telephone carried communications across the countryside. Electric lighting supplanted the dim glow of candles, kerosene, and gas lights. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the notion of progress was closely linked with technological development, and that linkage intensified in the following decades.

The automobile and the airplane changed not only travel but the nature of our cities and towns. Knowledge about the causes of diseases brought new treatments and preventive measures.

Computers appeared, and soon the transistor made them smaller, more powerful, more accessible, and cheaper. Today, the system by which research and development leads to new products is fundamentally different than it was in the nineteenth century. To the role of the individual inventor has been added the power of organized scientific research and technological innovation.

Organized research and development, which are increasingly international in character, have greatly increased the production of new knowledge. Basic insights in materials science enable the development of structures that are lighter, stronger, and more durable than anything available before.

The computer and novel modes of communication, such as optical fibers, bring new, interactive modes of work and more capable machinery. These new devices and new ways of working, in turn, speed the growth and dissemination of new knowledge. The accumulation of scientific knowledge and new technologies has transformed human life.

The rapid rate of material progress can continue, but it is not inevitable. The extent to which the products of science and technology are useful depends on the needs of society.

Progress is more likely if we understand these differences. Only then can we effectively translate scientific and technical understanding into the techniques, tools, and insights that improve the quality of our lives.

Some, such as the semiconductor industry, the biotechnology industry, and parts of the chemical industry, were created and shaped almost entirely by ideas that grew out of science. The technologies at the heart of these industries were initially characterized more by promise than by real products.

High-temperature superconductivity is a scientific discovery that shows promise of leading to new industries and is in this stage today.

As science-based industries continue to develop, they remain closely dependent on continuous inputs of new science, often produced by university researchers. These industries depend as well on the technological development of these ideas in order to grow and to widen their range of products.

At an early stage, these industries tend to be small, to move at a fast technical and competitive pace, and to have enormous potential. Biotechnology is now in this stage. In a more mature stage, a science-based industry may still be growing quickly, but it depends ess on the progress of academic scientists.

The semiconductor industry, for example, moves at a fast technical pace and requires increasingly detailed knowledge of its materials and, as the individual transistors buried in its chips become ever smaller, even of new quantum phenomena. But its scientific needs are met almost entirely by the work of semiconductor scientists and engineers working in the plants and laboratories of the semiconductor companies.

Indeed, industry scientists are often the only ones with the detailed knowledge needed to make incremental improvements in the technologies. Another example of an industry at a mature stage is the aircraft industry, where thousands of scientists and engineers are required to deal with the enormous complexities of new plane design.

Investments in manufacturing tools and plants are often measured in hundreds of millions of dollars. Only major companies can act on this scale, and only they have the technological knowledge and experience needed to design these complex products. They do, however, require the highest levels of technological and production know-how.

For industries that rely on high technology but are technically self-contained such as the semiconductor industry and industries that do not depend heavily on current science such as the automobile industrythe results of current fundamental research are generally not decisive.Wireless technology and ICT infrastructure development is also vital for entrepreneurship and small business development.

In many emerging nations, it is a major challenge to gain access to capital and market information. This award recognizes faculty in Cornell’s College of Arts & Sciences who have demonstrated their devotion to teaching, including classroom presence, preparation and administration, student counseling, development of new courses, and new methods of student instruction.

The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it have changed over the centuries. This academic discipline also studies the cultural, economic, and political impacts of scientific innovation. offers news,analysis and information about science and technology for global development; including agriculture, environment, health, governance, and more.

Development of scince and technology in offers news,analysis and information about science and technology for global development; including agriculture, environment. offers news,analysis and information about science and technology for global development; including agriculture, environment, health, governance, and more.

The Department of Science & Technology plays a pivotal role in promotion of science & technology in the country.

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