Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics.
In Italian scientist Galileo Galilei, using his own telescope, modeled on an invention recently made in the Netherlands, discovered that the Moon, far from being smooth and utterly unlike Earth, had mountains and craters. By using the lengths of their shadows, Galileo was… Early life and career Galileo was born in PisaTuscanyon February 15,the oldest son of Vincenzo Galileia musician who made important contributions to the theory and practice of music and who may have performed some experiments with Galileo in —89 on the relationship between pitch and the tension of strings.
The family moved to Florence in the early s, where the Galilei family had lived for generations. In his middle teens Galileo attended the monastery school at Vallombrosanear Florence, and then in matriculated at the University of Pisa, where he was to study medicine.
However, he became enamoured with mathematics and decided to make the mathematical subjects and philosophy his profession, against the protests of his father. Galileo then began to prepare himself to teach Aristotelian philosophy and mathematics, and several of his lectures have survived.
|Early life and career||Typically, the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i. If more than one person created the work, then a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met.|
|APA Style Reference | Bellevue University||We have "socials" in June and early December.|
In Galileo left the university without having obtained a degree, and for several years he gave private lessons in the mathematical subjects in Florence and Siena. He also began his studies on motionwhich he pursued steadily for the next two decades.
In Galileo applied for the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna but was unsuccessful. He also found some ingenious theorems on centres of gravity again, circulated in manuscript that brought him recognition among mathematicians and the patronage of Guidobaldo del Monte —a nobleman and author of several important works on mechanics.
As a result, he obtained the chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa in There, according to his first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani —Galileo demonstrated, by dropping bodies of different weights from the top of the famous Leaning Towerthat the speed of fall of a heavy object is not proportional to its weight, as Aristotle had claimed.
The manuscript tract Author biography example academic writing motu On Motionfinished during this period, shows that Galileo was abandoning Aristotelian notions about motion and was instead taking an Archimedean approach to the problem.
But his attacks on Aristotle made him unpopular with his colleagues, and in his contract was not renewed. His patrons, however, secured him the chair of mathematics at the University of Paduawhere he taught from until His university salary could not cover all his expenses, and he therefore took in well-to-do boarding students whom he tutored privately in such subjects as fortification.
He also sold a proportional compass, or sector, of his own devising, made by an artisan whom he employed in his house. Perhaps because of these financial problems, he did not marry, but he did have an arrangement with a Venetian woman, Marina Gamba, who bore him two daughters and a son.
In the midst of his busy life he continued his research on motion, and by he had determined that the distance fallen by a body is proportional to the square of the elapsed time the law of falling bodies and that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabolaboth conclusions that contradicted Aristotelian physics.
In the spring of he heard that in the Netherlands an instrument had been invented that showed distant things as though they were nearby. Others had done the same; what set Galileo apart was that he quickly figured out how to improve the instrument, taught himself the art of lens grinding, and produced increasingly powerful telescopes.
In August of that year he presented an eight-powered instrument to the Venetian Senate Padua was in the Venetian Republic. He was rewarded with life tenure and a doubling of his salary. Galileo was now one of the highest-paid professors at the university.
In the fall of Galileo began observing the heavens with instruments that magnified up to 20 times. In January he discovered four moons revolving around Jupiter. He also found that the telescope showed many more stars than are visible with the naked eye.
These discoveries were earthshaking, and Galileo quickly produced a little book, Sidereus Nuncius The Sidereal Messengerin which he described them. He dedicated the book to Cosimo II de Medici —the grand duke of his native Tuscanywhom he had tutored in mathematics for several summers, and he named the moons of Jupiter after the Medici family: Before he left Padua he had discovered the puzzling appearance of Saturnlater to be shown as caused by a ring surrounding it, and in Florence he discovered that Venus goes through phases just as the Moon does.
Although these discoveries did not prove that Earth is a planet orbiting the Sunthey undermined Aristotelian cosmology: As a result, Galileo was confirmed in his belief, which he had probably held for decades but which had not been central to his studies, that the Sun is the centre of the universe and that Earth is a planet, as Copernicus had argued.
After a brief controversy about floating bodies, Galileo again turned his attention to the heavens and entered a debate with Christoph Scheiner —a German Jesuit and professor of mathematics at Ingolstadtabout the nature of sunspots of which Galileo was an independent discoverer.
In he wrote a letter to his student Benedetto Castelli — in Pisa about the problem of squaring the Copernican theory with certain biblical passages. Several Dominican fathers in Florence lodged complaints against Galileo in Rome, and Galileo went to Rome to defend the Copernican cause and his good name.
In his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo discussed the problem of interpreting biblical passages with regard to scientific discoveries but, except for one example, did not actually interpret the Bible.
That task had been reserved for approved theologians in the wake of the Council of Trent —63 and the beginning of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. But the tide in Rome was turning against the Copernican theory, and inwhen the cleric Paolo Antonio Foscarini c.
Only slowly did he recover from this setback. Through a student, he entered a controversy about the nature of comets occasioned by the appearance of three comets in After several exchanges, mainly with Orazio Grassi —a professor of mathematics at the Collegio Romano, he finally entered the argument under his own name.
Il saggiatore The Assayerpublished inwas a brilliant polemic on physical reality and an exposition of the new scientific method. Galileo here discussed the method of the newly emerging sciencearguing:However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date.
Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date .
Jorge Luis Borges: Jorge Luis Borges, Argentine poet, essayist, and short-story writer whose works have become classics of 20th-century world literature.
Borges was reared in the then-shabby Palermo district of Buenos Aires, the setting of some of his works. . The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
The Philosophy and Literature Bad Writing Contest ran from to For an essay giving background on the contest, click here.. We are pleased to announce winners of the fourth Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Literature..
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The Guide to Grammar and Writing contains scores of digital handouts on grammar and English usage, over computer-graded quizzes, recommendations on writing -- from basic problems in subject-verb agreement and the use of articles to exercises in parallel structures and help with argumentative essays, and a way to submit questions about grammar and writing.