From toDavid Robarge worked as a research assistant for Richard Helms while the Ambassador was writing his memoirs, and also interviewed him extensively for other historical projects. In the course of those and many other professional and social contacts with the Ambassador and his family, the author came to regard Helms as a friend and counselor.
Received Dec 30; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Although very similar incidents have occurred in Europe and elsewhere, this terrible day saw the greatest loss of life recorded in this type of incident in recent times. Internationally EMS providers looked on with the certain knowledge that this type of incident is sadly one that we all have to prepare for.
It is unrelated to national foreign policy, religious extremism or the existence of known terrorist activity. In short this type of incident is unpredictable and has the potential to happen in any community at any time.
The aftermath of this type of incident is complex. Initially public and private grief dominates.
There is then an attempt to comprehend the motives and background to apparently senseless acts that led to the tragic loss of innocent lives. Usually there is intense scrutiny of the perpetrator in an attempt to identify something in his or her background which might have predicted the incident.
Inevitably the emergency response to the incidents is examined sometimes objectively and sometimes less so. The families of the victims and the public want to be reassured that everything possible was done to prevent the loss of life.
Government legislation may result from incidents - the Dunblane school killings in Scotland in which resulted in the death of fifteen small children and their teacher led to rigorous controls on gun ownership in the UK.
Later the emergency services can be subject to further scrutiny at inquests or public inquiries. These can be months or years after the event the inquests into the London bombings in were only completed five years later. The motivations behind requests for information about the emergency response are varied.
However, placing objective information about the emergency service response in the public domain is a responsible act. It allows other EMS services nationally and internationally to analyse and exercise their emergency responses to similar incidents with credible background information.
This may allow improved emergency responses to future incidents which may occur before the conclusions of lengthy public or legal investigations. The authors of this paper are to be commended for bringing objective information into the medical literature in a timely manner after managing a difficult incident with great skill.
Although all major incidents are unique they all have common elements. The incidents in July in Norway can be usefully categorised to analyse the challenges faced by the regional EMS system. They are categorised by some authorities as 'lone wolf' incidents - usually planned and executed by one individual and unconnected to known organisations.
They are often carefully planned. Other well documented 'lone wolf type incidents' in the US include the Oklahoma bombing by Timothy McVeigh in deaths [ 2 ] and the long letter bomb campaign of Theodore Kaczynski.
In Europe the apparently racially motivated killings by John Ausonius in Sweden and Franz Fuchs in Austria in the early s, two school shooting incidents in Finland in andand a series of nail bombs in London by David Copeland in are all examples of this type of incident.
Although in retrospect, many of the perpetrators of these incidents have exhibited dysfunctional behaviour, intelligence on them or their intentions is rarely available since they are not usually members of organisations.
Multiple incidents Two incidents are described a few hours apart. Where more than one major incident occurs simultaneously coordination and allocation of adequate resources is always more difficult.
There are numerous recent terrorist incidents that have involved multiple sites: Despite this challenge the response times described in this article are excellent. In Oslo the first ambulance was on scene three minutes after the first emergency call and a major incident was declared at eight minutes.
At twenty six minutes there were 41 ambulances on scene and at 90 minutes all immediate needs had been met and the emergency resources were effectively ready for redeployment.
Examination of the available literature reveals that most advanced EMS systems would struggle to achieve these timelines. In a more rural location the first ambulance was on scene in nine minutes and a major incident declared at 21 minutes.To gain financial independence for retirement, use the lessons of those who have retired early like really early The Big Takeaways Financial independence can be achieved, but it’s about combining lifestyle ambitions with reasonable financial strategies.
Learning Lessons from Averted Acts of Violence in Schools.
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since I planned it. So you planned out what you were going to do. Did that help when you delivered the lesson? The shootings in Oslo and Utøya island July 22, Lessons for the International EMS community. They are often carefully planned. The authors describe a number of potential lessons that emerged after early analysis of the incident.
They describe some failure of communication.